Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 30 to 37.
The Arts and Crafts Movement in the United States was responsible for sweeping changes in attitudes toward the decorative arts, then considered the minor or household arts. Its focus on decorative arts helped to induce United States museums and private collectors to begin collecting furniture, glass, ceramics, metalwork, and textiles in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The fact that artisans, who were looked on as mechanics or skilled workers in the eighteenth century, are frequently considered artists today is directly attributable to the Arts and Crafts Movement of the nineteenth century. The importance now placed on attractive and harmonious home decoration can also be traced to this period, when Victorian interior arrangements were revised to admit greater light and more freely flowing spaces.The Arts and Crafts Movement reacts against mechanized processes that threatened handcrafts and resulted in cheapened, monotonous merchandise. Founded in the late nineteenth century by British social critics John Ruskin and William Morris, the movement revered craft as a form of art. In a rapidly industrializing society, most Victorians agreed that art was an essential moral ingredient in the home environment, and in many middle- and working-class homes craft was the only form of art. Ruskin and his followers criticized not only the degradation of artisans reduced to machine operators, but also the impending loss of daily contact with
handcrafted objects, fashioned with pride, integrity, and attention to beauty.In the United States as well as in Great Britain, reformers extolled the virtues of handcrafted objects: simple, straightforward design; solid materials of good quality; and sound, enduring construction techniques. These criteria were interpreted in a variety of styles, ranging from rational and geometric to romantic or naturalistic. Whether abstract, stylized, or realistically treated, the consistent theme in virtually all Arts and Crafts design is nature.The Arts and Crafts Movement was much more than a particular style; it was a philosophy of domestic life. Proponents believed that if simple design, high-quality materials, and honest construction were realized in
the home and its appointments, then the occupants would enjoy moral and therapeutic effects. For both artisan and consumer, the Arts and Crafts doctrine was seen as a magical force against the undesirable effects of industrialization.
According to paragraph 2, the handcrafted objects in the homes of middle and working-class families usually were ...............
made by members of the family
the least expensive objects in their homes
regarded as being morally uplifting
thought to symbolize progress
C.regarded as being morally uplifting
Theo đoạn 2, những vật thủ công trong nhà của những gia đình lao động tầm trung thường:
A. được làm bởi các thành viên trong gia đình.
B. ít đắt nhất trong các đồ vật trong nhà họ.
C. được coi là đồ vật mang lại tinh thần tốt.
D. được cho là biểu tượng hoá quá trình.
Dẫn chứng: “Most Victorians agreed that art was an essential moral ingredient in the home environment, and in many middle and working-class homes craft was the only form of art.”
Tạm dịch: “Hầu hết những người Victoria đều đồng tình rằng đồ nghệ thuật là một món đồ tinh thần không thể thiếu với không khí gia đình, và ở những gia đình lao động tầm trung, đồ thủ công là những đồ mang tính nghệ thuật duy nhất.
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the sentence that is closest in meaning to each of the following questions. Tome denied breaking the teacher's laptop.
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the followingquestions. The song _______by our listeners as their favorite of the week is "Goodbye Baby"...
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word that differs from the other three in the position of the primary stress in each of the following questions.
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the sentence which has the same meaningas the given one. "Have you got any free time next week?" Mandy asked.