Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 30 to 37.
The Arts and Crafts Movement in the United States was responsible for sweeping changes in attitudes toward the decorative arts, then considered the minor or household arts. Its focus on decorative arts helped to induce United States museums and private collectors to begin collecting furniture, glass, ceramics, metalwork,and textiles in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The fact that artisans, who were looked on as mechanics or skilled workers in the eighteenth century, are frequently considered artists today is directly attributable to the Arts and Crafts Movement of the nineteenth century. The importance now placed on attractive and harmonious home decoration can also be traced to this period, when Victorian interior arrangements were revised to admit greater light and more freely flowing spaces.The Arts and Crafts Movement reacts against mechanized processes that threatened handcrafts and resulted in cheapened, monotonous merchandise. Founded in the late nineteenth century by British social critics John Ruskin and William Morris, the movement revered craft as a form of art. In a rapidly industrializing society, most Victorians agreed that art was an essential moral ingredient in the home environment, and in many middle- and working-class homes craft was the only form of art. Ruskin and his followers criticized not only the degradation of artisans reduced to machine operators, but also the impending loss of daily contact with
handcrafted objects, fashioned with pride, integrity, and attention to beauty.In the United States as well as in Great Britain, reformers extolled the virtues of handcrafted objects: simple, straightforward design; solid materials of good quality; and sound, enduring construction techniques. These criteria were interpreted in a variety of styles, ranging from rational and geometric to romantic or naturalistic. Whether abstract, stylized, or realistically treated, the consistent theme in virtually all Arts and Crafts design is nature.The Arts and Crafts Movement was much more than a particular style; it was a philosophy of domestic life. Proponents believed that if simple design, high-quality materials, and honest construction were realized in
the home and its appointments, then the occupants would enjoy moral and therapeutic effects. For both artisan and consumer, the Arts and Crafts doctrine was seen as a magical force against the undesirable effects of industrialization.
It can be inferred from the passage that the Arts and Crafts Movement would have considered all of the following to be artists EXCEPT _____.
creators of textile designs
people who produce handmade glass objects
operators of machines that automatically cut legs, for furniture
metalworkers who create unique pieces of jewelry
C.operators of machines that automatically cut legs, for furniture
Từ đoạn trích có thể suy ra rằng những thay đổi trong nghệ thuật và thủ công có để đều được coi là nghệ sĩ ngoại trừ:
A. những người sáng tạo thiết kế trên vải vóc.
B. những người sản xuất vật thuỷ tinh bằng tay.
C. những người điều hành máy tự động cắt tay cho đồ đạc.
D. thợ kim loại sản xuất những trang sức độc đáo.
Dẫn chứng: “The Arts and Crafts Movement reacts against mechanized processes that threatened handcrafts and resulted in cheapened, monotonous merchandise.”
Tạm dịch: “Những thay đổi về nghệ thuật và thủ công phản đối quá trình máy móc hoá đã đe doạ đồ thủ công và dẫn đến những hàng hoá rẻ mạt, một màu.”
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